Linux Command Line Cheat Sheet

Buen día lectores del blog, en esta entrega les comparto una serie de comandos que pueden sernos muy útiles al momento de administrar nuestros equipos y/o servidores en Linux.

Bash Commands
uname -a Show system and kernel
head -n1 /etc/issue Show distri­bution
mount Show mounted filesy­stems
date Show system date
uptime Show uptime
whoami Show your username
man command Show manual forcommand
Directory Operations
pwd Show current directory
mkdir dir Make directory dir
cd dir Change directory to dir
cd .. Go up a directory
ls List files
Nano Shortcuts
Files
Ctrl-R Read file
Ctrl-O Save file
Ctrl-X Close file
Cut and Paste
ALT-A Start marking text
CTRL-K Cut marked text or line
CTRL-U Paste text
Navigate File
ALT-/ End of file
CTRL-A Beginning of line
CTRL-E End of line
CTRL-C Show line number
CTRL-_ Go to line number
Search File
CTRL-W Find
ALT-W Find next
CTRL-\ Search and replace
Bash Shortcuts
CTRL-c Stop current command
CTRL-z Sleep program
CTRL-a Go to start of line
CTRL-e Go to end of line
CTRL-u Cut from start of line
CTRL-k Cut to end of line
CTRL-r Search history
!! Repeat last command
!abc Run last command starting withabc
!abc:p Print last command starting withabc
!$ Last argument of previous command
ALT-. Last argument of previous command
!* All arguments of previous command
ls Options
-a Show all (including hidden)
-R Recursive list
-r Reverse order
-t Sort by last modified
-S Sort by file size
-l Long listing format
-1 One file per line
-m Comma-­sep­arated output
-Q Quoted output
Screen Shortcuts
screen

Start a screen session.
screen -r

Resume a screen session.
screen -list

Show your current screen sessions.
CTRL-A

Activate commands for screen.
CTRL-A c

Create a new instance of terminal.
CTRL-A n

Go to the next instance of terminal.
CTRL-A p

Go to the previous instance of terminal.
CTRL-A ”

Show current instances of terminals.
CTRL-A A

Rename the current instance.
Search Files
grep patternfiles Search for pattern in files
grep -i Case insens­itive search
grep -r Recursive search
grep -v Inverted search
grep -o Show matched part of file only
find /dir/ -name name* Find files starting with namein dir
find /dir/ -user name Find files owned by name indir
find /dir/ -mmin num Find files modifed less thannum minutes ago in dir
whereiscommand Find binary / source / manual for command
locate file Find file (quick search of system index)
Bash Variables
env Show enviro­nment variables
echo $NAME Output value of $NAMEvariable
export NAME­=v­alue Set $NAME to value
$PATH Executable search path
$HOME Home directory
$SHELL Current shell
File Permissions
chmod 775 file

Change mode of file to 775
chmod -R 600 folder

Recurs­ively chmod folder to 600
chown user­:g­roup file

Change file owner to user and group togroup
File Operations
touch file1

Create file1
cat file1 file2

Concat­enate files and output
less file1

View and paginate file1
file file1

Get type of file1
cp file1 file2

Copy file1 to file2
mv file1 file2

Move file1 to file2
rm file1

Delete file1
head file1

Show first 10 lines of file1
tail file1

Show last 10 lines of file1
tail -f file1

Output last lines of file1 as it changes
IO Redirection
cmd < file

Input of cmd from file
cmd1 <(­cmd2)

Output of cmd2 as file input to cmd1
cmd > file

Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file
cmd > /dev/null

Discard stdout of cmd
cmd >> file

Append stdout to file
cmd 2> file

Error output (stderr) of cmd to file
cmd 1>&2

stdout to same place as stderr
cmd 2>&1

stderr to same place as stdout
cmd &> file

Every output of cmd to file
File Permission Numbers
The first digit is the owner permis­sion, the second the group and the third for everyone.
Calculate each of the three permission digits by adding the numeric values of the permis­sions below.
4 read (r)
2 write (w)
1 execute (x)
Pipes
cmd1 | cmd2

stdout of cmd1 to cmd2
cmd1 |& cmd2

stderr of cmd1 to cmd2
Process Management
ps Show snapshot of processes
top Show real time processes
kill pid Kill process with id pid
pkillname Kill process with name name
killallname Kill all processes with names beginning name
Command Lists
cmd1 ; cmd2

Run cmd1 then cmd2
cmd1 && cmd2

Run cmd2 if cmd1 is successful
cmd1 || cmd2

Run cmd2 if cmd1 is not successful
cmd &

Run cmd in a subshell

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